Arxiu de la categoria: Document de treball

CREAP2006-05: Job losses, outsourcing and relocation: Empirical evidence using Microdata

Using microdata, we analyse the determinants of firm relocation and conventional outsourcing decisions as a way to reduce employment. The results for a sample of 32 countries show the relevance of factors not considered previously in the literature. Firms that are below average in quality or innovation have a higher propensity to externalise part of their production through outsourcing, while lower relative profitability and longer time to market for new products each imply a higher probability of relocation. 

Manuel Artís (AQR-IREA); Raúl Ramos (AQR-IREA); Jordi Suriñach (AQR-IREA)


CREAP2006-02: Productive efficiency and regulatory reform: The case of vehicle inspection services

La mesura de l’eficiència productiva proporciona informació sobre els possibles efectes de la reforma regulatòria. Es presenta una Anàlisi Envoltant de Dades (DEA) per a una mostra de 38 unitats d’inspecció de vehicles sota règim de concessió, entre els anys 2000 i 2004. Les diferències en els indicadors d’eficiència mostren la potencial millora en l’eficiència tècnica d’introduir alguna forma de regulació d’incentius o d’avançar cap a la liberalització. Es calculen també els indicadors de l’eficiència d’escala, que mostren que només les unitats en territoris amb una molt baixa densitat de població operen amb una escala subòptima. Entre les que operen amb una escala òptima, les més grans es localitzen en territoris amb alta densitat de població, el que suggereix que la introducció de noves unitats no seria perjudicial en termes d’eficiència d’escala. Ens trobem que les unitats d’inspecció que pertanyen a una gran empresa diversificada presenten una major eficiència tècnica, reflectint economies d’escala o de gama. Finalment, es mostra que entre 2002 i 2004, un període d’alta incertesa regulatòria en la regió de la mostra, el canvi tècnic va ser gairebé nul. La reforma regulatòria ha de tenir en compte els efectes d’escala i diversificació, al mateix temps que evita l’incertesa regulatòria.

Francesc Trillas (IEB); Daniel Montolio (IEB); Néstor Duch (IEB)


CREAP2006-04: Are two-part tariffs efficient when consumers plan ahead?: An empirical study

During the last two decades there has been an increase in using dynamic tariffs for billing household electricity consumption. This has questioned the suitability of traditional pricing schemes, such as two-part tariffs, since they contribute to create marked peak and off-peak demands. The aim of this paper is to assess if two-part tariffs are an efficient pricing scheme using Spanish household electricity microdata. An ordered probit model with instrumental variables on the determinants of power level choice and non-paramentric spline regressions on the electricity price distribution will allow us to distinguish between the tariff structure choice and the simultaneous demand decisions. We conclude that electricity consumption and dwellings’ and individuals’ characteristics are key determinants of the fixed charge paid by Spanish households Finally, the results point to the inefficiency of the two-part tariff as those consumers who consume more electricity pay a lower price than the others.

Laura Fernàndez-Villadangos (GPRE-IREA)


CREAP2006-03: Factors explaining local privatization: A meta-regression analysis

Privatization of local public services has been implemented worldwide in the last decades. Why local governments privatize has been the subject of much discussion, and many empirical works have been devoted to analyzing the factors that explain local privatization. Such works have found a great diversity of motivations, and the variation among reported empirical results is large. To investigate this diversity we undertake a meta-regression analysis of the factors explaining the decision to privatize local services. Overall, our results indicate that significant relationships are very dependent upon the characteristics of the studies. Indeed, fiscal stress and political considerations have been found to contribute to local privatization specially in the studies of US cases published in the eighties that consider a broad range of services. Studies that focus on one service capture more accurately the influence of scale economies on privatization. Finally, governments of small towns are more affected by fiscal stress, political considerations and economic efficiency, while ideology seems to play a major role for large cities. 

Germà Bel (GPRE-IREA); Xavier Fageda (GPRE-IREA)