We distinguish and assess three fundamental views of the labor market regarding the movements in unempoyment: (i) the frictionless equilibrium view; (ii) the chain reaction theory, or prolonged adjustment view; and (iii) the hysteresis view. While the frictionless view implies a clear compartmentalization between the short- and long-run, the hysteresis view implies that all the short-run fluctuations automatically turn into long-run changes in the unemployment rate. We assert the problems faced by these conceptions in explaining the diversity of labor market experiences across the OECD labor markets. We argue that the prolonged adjustment view can overcome these problems since it implies that the short, medium, and long runs are interrelated, merging with one another along an intertemporal continuum.
Marika Karanassou; Hector Sala (GEAP) and Dennis J. Snower
En aquest article es duu a terme el contrast de la hipòtesi de paritat entre tipus d.interès reals (RIRP) entre dinou dels majors paísos de la OCDE al llarg del període 1978:Q2-1998:Q4. La metodologia economètrica aplicada es basa en la combinació de l.ús de diversos contrastos d.arrel unitària i d.estacionarietat dissenyats per un entorn de dades de panell que són vàlids sota la presència de dependència entre els individusi presència de múltiples canvis estructurals. Els nostres resultats donen fort suport al compliment de la versió dèbil de la RIRP en el període analitzat un cop la dependencia i els canvis estructurals són tinguts en compte.
Mariam Camarero; Josep Lluis Carrion-i-Silvestre (AQR-IREA) and Cecilio Tamarit
Quality of life is increasingly becoming a concept researched empirically and theoretically in the field of economics. In urban economics in particular, this increasing interest stems mainly from the fact that quality of life affects urban competitiveness and urban growth: research shows that when households and businesses decide where to locate, quality of life considerations can play a very important role. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the way economic literature and urban economic literature in particular, have adopted quality of life considerations in the economic thinking. Moreover, it presents the ways various studies have attempted to capture the multidimensional nature of the concept, and quantify it for the purposes of empirical research. Additionally we focus on the state of the art in Spain. Looking at the experiences in the last years we see very important possibilities of developing new studies in the field.
Vicente Royuela (AQR-IREA); Diona Lambiri and Bianca Biagi
The 1998 Spanish reform of the Personal Income Tax eliminated the 15% deduction for private medical expenditures including payments on private health insurance (PHI) policies. To avoid an undesirable increase in the demand for publicly funded health care, tax incentives to buy PHI were not completely removed but basically shifted from individual to group employer-paid policies. In a unique fiscal experiment, at the same time that the tax relief for individually purchased policies was abolished, the government provided for tax allowances on policies taken out through employment. Using a bivariate probit model on data from National Health Surveys, we estimate the impact of said reform on the demand for PHI and the changes occurred within it. Our findings suggest that the total probability of buying PHI was not significantly affected. Indeed, the fall in the demand for individual policies (by 10% between 1997 and 2001) was offset by an increase in the demand for group employer-paid ones, so that the overall size of the market remained virtually unchanged. We also briefly discuss the welfare effects on the state budget, the industry and society at large.
Marisol Rodríguez (CREB); Alexandrina Stoyanova (CREB)