Arxiu de la categoria: Document de treball

CREAP2006-10: Political institutions and the development of telecomunications

It has traditionally been argued that the development of telecommunications infrastructure is dependent on the quality of countries’ political institutions. We estimate the effect of political institutions on the diffusion of three telecommunications services and find it to be much smaller in cellular telephony than in the others. By evaluating the importance of institutions for technologies rather than for industries, we reveal important growth opportunities for developing countries and offer policy implications for alleviating differences between countries in international telecommunications development.

Veneta Andonova; Luis Díaz-Serrano (CREB-GRIT-IZA)

CREAP2006-10.pdf

CREAP2006-09: Productivity growth and competition in spanish manufacturing firms: What has happened in recent years?

This paper addresses the issue of the relationship between productivity and market competition. In comparison to the economies of other European countries, the Spanish economy has been growing, while productivity growth has stagnated. Here we provide empirical evidence about the relationship between productivity and market competition from Spanish manufacturing firms at firm level between 1994 and 2004. Correcting for selection bias, our study pays special attention to the patterns of productivity growth between openness and non-openness firms. When market competition increases the effect on firms operating in domestic markets is positive but when the level of competition is high incentives to invest in innovation and productivity gains disappear. The empirical relationship between competition and productivity is an inverted U-shape, where productivity growth is highest at intermediate levels of competition. The productivity growth of firms operating in international markets is higher than that of non-openness firms, but when market competition rises they moderate their productivity growth. Our empirical results suggest that the correct competition policy in the Spanish economy should remove the barriers to competition in internal markets in order to increase the incentives for manufacturing firms to invest in innovation and productivity growth.

Agustí Segarra Blasco (GRIT); Mercedes Teruel-Carrizosa (GRIT)

CREAP2006-09.pdf

CREAP2006-08: The choice of banking: Are the interest rate a significant criteria?

L’objectiu de la investigació és el determinar els factors que influeixen en l’elecció d’entitat bancària. Els resultats indiquen que la proximitat (la dimensió de la xarxa de sucursals) és el motiu que els espanyols més valoren a l’hora d’inclinar-se per una o una altra entitat. Tot i la creixent simetria del mercat bancari espanyol, les preferències dels clients de les caixes d’estalvi i les dels bancs són del tot coincidents, essent la proximitat –el principal motiu d’elecció- molt més valorada pels primers que pels segons. S’ha detectat també l’existència de divergències en les preferències segons quina sigui l’autonomia i la tipologia del municipi de residència de l’enquestat.

Antoni Garrido Torres (IEB), Pere Arqué Castells (IEB)

CREAP2006-08.pdf

CREAP2006-07: Lowering blood alcohol content levels to save lives: The European experience

La seguretat vial s’ha convertit en una creixent preocupació al món desenvolupat degut al gran número de víctimes mortals patides i  a les pèrdues econòmiques que se’n deriven d’ella. A l’any 2005 aquestes van ascendir a 200.000 milions d’euros, una quantitat que suposa el 2% del PIB europeu i que justifica l’existència d’intervenció pública. Els governs s’enfronten a aquest repte fixant lleis i normatives més estrictes, especialment a la lluita contra la conducció sota els efectes de l’alcohol. La majoria de països europeus van decidir al llarg de l’última dècada rebaixar el nivell d’alcohol a la sang permès fins a 0.5 mg/ml. Aquest treball avalua per primera vegada l’eficàcia d’aquesta transició utilitzant un panell de dades europees (CARE) mitjançant el mètode de Diferències en Diferències i efectes fixes permetent qualsevol patró de correlació (Cluster-Robust). Els resultats mostren l’existència d’un impacte positiu sobre certs grups, mentre que l’efectivitat sobre el conjunt d’usuaris només s’aconsegueix a on la reducció del nivell d’alcohol a la sang s’acompanya de mesures que forcen el seu compliment. A més, el treball troba un retràs superior a dos anys en aquesta eficàcia. Finalment, també es destaca la importància de controlar per l’autocorrelació habitualment oblidada a l’avaluació d’aquesta política.  

Daniel Albalate (GPRE-IREA)  Publicat a Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 27 (1) pp. 20-39

CREAP2006-07.pdf

CREAP2006-06: Calculation of the variance in surveys of the economic climate

Public opinion surveys have become progressively incorporated into systems of official statistics. Surveys of the economic climate are usually qualitative because they collect opinions of businesspeople and/or experts about the long-term indicators described by a number of variables. In such cases the responses are expressed in ordinal numbers, that is, the respondents verbally report, for example, whether during a given trimester the sales or the new orders have increased, decreased or remained the same as in the previous trimester. These data allow to calculate the percent of respondents in the total population (results are extrapolated), who select every one of the three options. Data are often presented in the form of an index calculated as the difference between the percent of those who claim that a given variable has improved in value and of those who claim that it has deteriorated. As in any survey conducted on a sample the question of the measurement of the sample error of the results has to be addressed, since the error influences both the reliability of the results and the calculation of the sample size adequate for a desired confidence interval. The results presented here are based on data from the Survey of the Business Climate (Encuesta de Clima Empresarial) developed through the collaboration of the Statistical Institute of Catalonia (Institut d’Estadística de Catalunya) with the Chambers of Commerce (Cámaras de Comercio) of Sabadell and Terrassa.  

Manuela Alcañiz (RISC-IREA); Àlex Costa; Montserrat Guillén (RISC-IREA); Carme Luna; Cristina Rovira

CREAP2006-06.pdf

CREAP2006-05: Job losses, outsourcing and relocation: Empirical evidence using Microdata

Using microdata, we analyse the determinants of firm relocation and conventional outsourcing decisions as a way to reduce employment. The results for a sample of 32 countries show the relevance of factors not considered previously in the literature. Firms that are below average in quality or innovation have a higher propensity to externalise part of their production through outsourcing, while lower relative profitability and longer time to market for new products each imply a higher probability of relocation. 

Manuel Artís (AQR-IREA); Raúl Ramos (AQR-IREA); Jordi Suriñach (AQR-IREA)

CREAP2006-05.pdf

CREAP2006-02: Productive efficiency and regulatory reform: The case of vehicle inspection services

La mesura de l’eficiència productiva proporciona informació sobre els possibles efectes de la reforma regulatòria. Es presenta una Anàlisi Envoltant de Dades (DEA) per a una mostra de 38 unitats d’inspecció de vehicles sota règim de concessió, entre els anys 2000 i 2004. Les diferències en els indicadors d’eficiència mostren la potencial millora en l’eficiència tècnica d’introduir alguna forma de regulació d’incentius o d’avançar cap a la liberalització. Es calculen també els indicadors de l’eficiència d’escala, que mostren que només les unitats en territoris amb una molt baixa densitat de població operen amb una escala subòptima. Entre les que operen amb una escala òptima, les més grans es localitzen en territoris amb alta densitat de població, el que suggereix que la introducció de noves unitats no seria perjudicial en termes d’eficiència d’escala. Ens trobem que les unitats d’inspecció que pertanyen a una gran empresa diversificada presenten una major eficiència tècnica, reflectint economies d’escala o de gama. Finalment, es mostra que entre 2002 i 2004, un període d’alta incertesa regulatòria en la regió de la mostra, el canvi tècnic va ser gairebé nul. La reforma regulatòria ha de tenir en compte els efectes d’escala i diversificació, al mateix temps que evita l’incertesa regulatòria.

Francesc Trillas (IEB); Daniel Montolio (IEB); Néstor Duch (IEB)

CREAP2006-02.pdf

CREAP2006-04: Are two-part tariffs efficient when consumers plan ahead?: An empirical study

During the last two decades there has been an increase in using dynamic tariffs for billing household electricity consumption. This has questioned the suitability of traditional pricing schemes, such as two-part tariffs, since they contribute to create marked peak and off-peak demands. The aim of this paper is to assess if two-part tariffs are an efficient pricing scheme using Spanish household electricity microdata. An ordered probit model with instrumental variables on the determinants of power level choice and non-paramentric spline regressions on the electricity price distribution will allow us to distinguish between the tariff structure choice and the simultaneous demand decisions. We conclude that electricity consumption and dwellings’ and individuals’ characteristics are key determinants of the fixed charge paid by Spanish households Finally, the results point to the inefficiency of the two-part tariff as those consumers who consume more electricity pay a lower price than the others.

Laura Fernàndez-Villadangos (GPRE-IREA)

CREAP2006-04.pdf

CREAP2006-03: Factors explaining local privatization: A meta-regression analysis

Privatization of local public services has been implemented worldwide in the last decades. Why local governments privatize has been the subject of much discussion, and many empirical works have been devoted to analyzing the factors that explain local privatization. Such works have found a great diversity of motivations, and the variation among reported empirical results is large. To investigate this diversity we undertake a meta-regression analysis of the factors explaining the decision to privatize local services. Overall, our results indicate that significant relationships are very dependent upon the characteristics of the studies. Indeed, fiscal stress and political considerations have been found to contribute to local privatization specially in the studies of US cases published in the eighties that consider a broad range of services. Studies that focus on one service capture more accurately the influence of scale economies on privatization. Finally, governments of small towns are more affected by fiscal stress, political considerations and economic efficiency, while ideology seems to play a major role for large cities. 

Germà Bel (GPRE-IREA); Xavier Fageda (GPRE-IREA) 

CREAP2006-03.pdf

CREAP2006-15: The macroeconomics of the labor market: Three fundamental views

We distinguish and assess three fundamental views of the labor market regarding the movements in unempoyment: (i) the frictionless equilibrium view; (ii) the chain reaction theory, or prolonged adjustment view; and (iii) the hysteresis view. While the frictionless view implies a clear compartmentalization between the short- and long-run, the hysteresis view implies that all the short-run fluctuations automatically turn into long-run changes in the unemployment rate. We assert the problems faced by these conceptions in explaining the diversity of labor market experiences across the OECD labor markets. We argue that the prolonged adjustment view can overcome these problems since it implies that the short, medium, and long runs are interrelated, merging with one another along an intertemporal continuum.

Marika Karanassou; Hector Sala (GEAP) and Dennis J. Snower

CREAP2006-15.pdf